Two-dimensional and M-mode echocardiographic reference values in healthy adult Saanen goats

 Echocardiography has become a routine non-invasive cardiac diagnostic tool in most species.
Accurate measurement of cardiac dimensions requires reference values, which are poorly
documented in goats. The aim of the present study was to test the inter-day repeatability
and to establish the reference values of two-dimensional (2D-) and time-motion (M-) mode
echocardiographic variables in healthy adult Saanen goats. Six goats were investigated
three times by the same observer at one-day interval using a standardised 2D- and M-mode
echocardiographic protocol. The intra-observer inter-day repeatability was tested using
analysis of variance, calculation of the coefficient of variation and confidence intervals.

Reference values for echocardiographic parameters and indexes of left ventricular function in healthy, young adult sheep used in translational research

 Ovine models of ischemic heart disease and cardiac failure are increasingly used in translational research.
However, reliable extrapolation of the results to the clinical setting requires knowing if ovine normal left ventricular
(LV) function is comparable to that of humans. We thus assessed for echocardiographic LV dimensions and indexes
in a large normal adult sheep population and compared them with standardized values in normal human adults. Bidimensional and tissue Doppler echocardiograms were performed in 69 young adult Corriedale sheep under light sedation. LV dimensions and indexes of systolic and diastolic function were measured. Absolute and body surface areanormalized values were compared to those for normal adult humans and their statistical distribution was assessed.

Pulsed wave Doppler echocardiographic evaluation of intracardiac blood flow in normal sheep

The blood flow velocities and flow patterns were evaluated in normal sheep across the four cardiac valves using pulsed wave spectral Doppler echocardiography. Merino ewes (n=20) aged between 16 and 61 months with bodyweights ranging between 51 to 72 kg were evaluated. The sheep were fully conscious and required no sedation. The mean peak velocities for the left atrioventricular, right atrioventricular, aortic and pulmonary valves were 68·4, 51·9, 99·1 and 92·7 cm s−1, respectively. Additionally the wave forms were described and mean velocities and a variety of flow variables determined for each of these flow areas. The mean left atrioventricular valve E:A ratio was under 1 which differs from humans and dogs. Aortic and pulmonary flow variables were compared to each other.